PDF Article about Trophy Hunting, Lion Nose Colour and Lion AgeAfrican Lion Trophy Hunting Nose Colour by Nicholls, Ward & Kat

We assess a simulation model that proposed a sustainable trophy hunting method for African lions based on a long-term study of lion biology in Tanzania. The model predicted no discernible effect of harvesting males greater than 6yr from a population, and suggested that numerical hunting quotas be replaced with age-based quotas. According to the model, lion age could be reliably estimated using nose colour, because lion noses in Tanzania darkened "predictably" with age. By limiting offtake to only those males with noses greater than 50% black, hunting could theoretically be restricted to animals of an appropriate age. We provide information based on a 10+ year study in Botswana showing no statistically significant pattern of nose darkening with age for southern African lions. In addition, we show that male reproductive parameters in our study population differ significantly from those in the Tanzanian population...

PDF Article about the concept of an Iconic Heritage Species - LionsThe concept of an Iconic Heritage Species by Dr. Pieter Kat

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has a programme to conserve sites of exceptional cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity... A World Heritage Site can be anything from a forest, mountain, monument, building, or even a city.
LION AID would like to introduce the concept of an Iconic Heritage Species. Such wild species would come under the UNESCO umbrella of protection as considered important in terms of special international attention to conservation. These species... would need to be interlinked with world culture through symbolism, iconography, imagery, allegory, literature, totems, fables, art, and so forth. In fact, criterion six of the World Heritage Site qualification list already expresses this well – "to be directly or tangibly associated with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance".

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